# B. Feshchenko

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### Actions of finite groups and smooth functions on surfaces

Methods Funct. Anal. Topology **22** (2016), no. 3, 210-219

Let $f:M\to \mathbb{R}$ be a Morse function on a smooth closed surface, $V$ be a connected component of some critical level of $f$, and $\mathcal{E}_V$ be its atom. Let also $\mathcal{S}(f)$ be a stabilizer of the function $f$ under the right action of the group of diffeomorphisms $\mathrm{Diff}(M)$ on the space of smooth functions on $M,$ and $\mathcal{S}_V(f) = \{h\in\mathcal{S}(f)\,| h(V) = V\}.$ The group $\mathcal{S}_V(f)$ acts on the set $\pi_0\partial \mathcal{E}_V$ of connected components of the boundary of $\mathcal{E}_V.$ Therefore we have a homomorphism $\phi:\mathcal{S}(f)\to \mathrm{Aut}(\pi_0\partial \mathcal{E}_V)$. Let also $G = \phi(\mathcal{S}(f))$ be the image of $\mathcal{S}(f)$ in $\mathrm{Aut}(\pi_0\partial \mathcal{E}_V).$ Suppose that the inclusion $\partial \mathcal{E}_V\subset M\setminus V$ induces a bijection $\pi_0 \partial \mathcal{E}_V\to\pi_0(M\setminus V).$ Let $H$ be a subgroup of $G.$ We present a sufficient condition for existence of a section $s:H\to \mathcal{S}_V(f)$ of the homomorphism $\phi,$ so, the action of $H$ on $\partial \mathcal{E}_V$ lifts to the $H$-action on $M$ by $f$-preserving diffeomorphisms of $M$. This result holds for a larger class of smooth functions $f:M\to \mathbb{R}$ having the following property: for each critical point $z$ of $f$ the germ of $f$ at $z$ is smoothly equivalent to a homogeneous polynomial $\mathbb{R}^2\to \mathbb{R}$ without multiple linear factors.

### Smooth functions on 2-torus whose Kronrod-Reeb graph contains a cycle

Sergiy Maksymenko, Bohdan Feshchenko

Methods Funct. Anal. Topology **21** (2015), no. 1, 22-40

Let $f:M\to \mathbb{R}$ be a Morse function on a connected compact surface $M$, and $\mathcal{S}(f)$ and $\mathcal{O}(f)$ be respectively the stabilizer and the orbit of $f$ with respect to the right action of the group of diffeomorphisms $\mathcal{D}(M)$. In a series of papers the first author described the homotopy types of connected components of $\mathcal{S}(f)$ and $\mathcal{O}(f)$ for the cases when $M$ is either a $2$-disk or a cylinder or $\chi(M)<0$. Moreover, in two recent papers the authors considered special classes of smooth functions on $2$-torus $T^2$ and shown that the computations of $\pi_1\mathcal{O}(f)$ for those functions reduces to the cases of $2$-disk and cylinder.

In the present paper we consider another class of Morse functions $f:T^2\to\mathbb{R}$ whose KR-graphs have exactly one cycle and prove that for every such function there exists a subsurface $Q\subset T^2$, diffeomorphic with a cylinder, such that $\pi_1\mathcal{O}(f)$ is expressed via the fundamental group $\pi_1\mathcal{O}(f|_{Q})$ of the restriction of $f$ to $Q$.

This result holds for a larger class of smooth functions $f:T^2\to \mathbb{R}$ having the following property: for every critical point $z$ of $f$ the germ of $f$ at $z$ is smoothly equivalent to a homogeneous polynomial $\mathbb{R}^2\to \mathbb{R}$ without multiple factors.